Self-efficacy is the belief that you are capable of doing some action, otherwise phrased in here as The user believes that they are capable of performing actions within the app and The user believes that their actions in the app lead to goal achievement.
Self-efficacy is associated with (Bandura, 1998):
- setting higher standards in relation to goals
- greater effort, persistence, and concentration
- adopting a flexible approach to overcoming problems
- treating errors as learning experiences
- lower stress arousal
- fewer intrusive negative thoughts and greater success visualization
Essentially, people care more, adopt more of a growth mindset, and have a higher tolerance for friction. As such, building self-efficacy is a valid method to Intentionally design for failure states.